Please Whitelist This Site?

I know everyone hates ads. But please understand that I am providing premium content for free that takes hundreds of hours of time to research and write. I don't want to go to a pay-only model like some sites, but when more and more people block ads, I end up working for free. And I have a family to support, just like you. :)

If you like The TCP/IP Guide, please consider the download version. It's priced very economically and you can read all of it in a convenient format without ads.

If you want to use this site for free, I'd be grateful if you could add the site to the whitelist for Adblock. To do so, just open the Adblock menu and select "Disable on tcpipguide.com". Or go to the Tools menu and select "Adblock Plus Preferences...". Then click "Add Filter..." at the bottom, and add this string: "@@||tcpipguide.com^$document". Then just click OK.

Thanks for your understanding!

Sincerely, Charles Kozierok
Author and Publisher, The TCP/IP Guide


NOTE: Using software to mass-download the site degrades the server and is prohibited.
If you want to read The TCP/IP Guide offline, please consider licensing it. Thank you.

The Book is Here... and Now On Sale!

Get The TCP/IP Guide for your own computer.
The TCP/IP Guide

Custom Search







Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  The Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model
      9  OSI Reference Model Layers

Previous Topic/Section
Network Layer (Layer 3)
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
12
3
Next Page
Session Layer (Layer 5)
Next Topic/Section

Transport Layer (Layer 4)
(Page 3 of 3)

Relationship Between the Transport Layer and Network Layer

In theory, the transport layer and network layer are distinct, but in practice, they are often very closely related to each other. You can see this easily just by looking at the names of common protocol stacks—they are often named after the layer three and four protocols in the suite, implying their close relationship. For example, the name “TCP/IP” comes from the suite’s most commonly used transport layer protocol (TCP) and network layer protocol (IP). Similarly, the Novell NetWare suite is often called “IPX/SPX” for its layer three (IPX) and layer four (SPX) protocols. Typically, specific transport layer protocols use the network layers in the same family. You won't often find a network using the transport layer protocol from one suite and the network layer protocol from another.

The most commonly used transport layer protocols are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in the TCP/IP suite, the Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) protocol in the NetWare protocol suite, and the NetBEUI protocol in the NetBIOS/NetBEUI/NBF suite (though NetBEUI is more difficult to categorize.)

Key Concept: The fourth and middle OSI Reference Model layer is the transport layer. This is another very important conceptual layer in the model; it represents the transition point between the lower layers that deal with data delivery issues, and the higher layers that work with application software. The transport layer is responsible for enabling end-to-end communication between application processes, which it accomplishes in part through the use of process-level addressing and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Transport layer protocols are responsible for dividing application data into blocks for transmission, and may be either connection-oriented or connectionless. Protocols at this layer also often provide data delivery management services such as reliability and flow control.



Previous Topic/Section
Network Layer (Layer 3)
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
12
3
Next Page
Session Layer (Layer 5)
Next Topic/Section

If you find The TCP/IP Guide useful, please consider making a small Paypal donation to help the site, using one of the buttons below. You can also donate a custom amount using the far right button (not less than $1 please, or PayPal gets most/all of your money!) In lieu of a larger donation, you may wish to consider purchasing a download license of The TCP/IP Guide. Thanks for your support!
Donate $2
Donate $5
Donate $10
Donate $20
Donate $30
Donate: $



Home - Table Of Contents - Contact Us

The TCP/IP Guide (http://www.TCPIPGuide.com)
Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005

Copyright 2001-2005 Charles M. Kozierok. All Rights Reserved.
Not responsible for any loss resulting from the use of this site.