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Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols, Services and Applications (OSI Layers 5, 6 and 7)
      9  Name Systems and TCP/IP Name Registration and Name Resolution
           9  TCP/IP Name Systems: Host Tables and Domain Name System (DNS)
                9  TCP/IP Domain Name System (DNS)
                     9  DNS Name Servers and Name Resolution
                          9  DNS Name Server Concepts and Operation

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DNS Zone Management, Contacts and Zone Transfers
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DNS Name Server Caching, Negative Caching and Data Persistence
Next Topic/Section

DNS Root Name Servers
(Page 3 of 3)

Current Root Name Servers

Originally, the root name servers were given domain names reflecting the organizations that ran them. In these historical names we can see a veritable “who's who” of the big players in the development of the Internet: ISI, NASA, the United States military and others. Several of the servers are still run by government agencies or the US military, where added security can be put into place to protect them. For convenience, however, all the root name servers are now given alphabetical “letter names” in the special domain “root-servers.net”.

Table 167 shows the most current information about the DNS root name servers as of the date of publishing of this Guide. For your interest and amusement I have also mapped the locations of these servers in Figure 242.


Table 167: Internet DNS Root Name Servers

Root Server Name

IP Address

Historical Name

Location(s)

a.root-servers.net

198.41.0.4

ns.internic.net

Dulles, VA, USA

b.root-servers.net

128.9.0.107

ns1.isi.edu

Marina Del Rey, CA, USA

c.root-servers.net

192.33.4.12

c.psi.net

Herndon, VA and Los Angeles, CA, USA

d.root-servers.net

128.8.10.90

terp.umd.edu

College Park, MD, USA

e.root-servers.net

192.203.230.10

ns.nasa.gov

Mountain View, CA, USA

f.root-servers.net

192.5.5.241

ns.isc.org

Auckland, New Zealand; Sao Paulo, Brazil; Hong Kong, China; Johannesburg, South Africa; Los Angeles, CA, USA; New York, NY, USA; Madrid, Spain; Palo Alto, CA, USA; Rome, Italy; Seoul, Korea; San Francisco, CA, USA; San Jose, CA, USA; Ottawa, ON, Canada

g.root-servers.net

192.112.36.4

ns.nic.ddn.mil

Vienna, VA, USA

h.root-servers.net

128.63.2.53

aos.arl.army.mil

Aberdeen, MD, USA

i.root-servers.net

192.36.148.17

nic.nordu.net

Stockholm, Sweden; Helsinki, Finland

j.root-servers.net

192.58.128.30

Dulles, VA, USA; Mountain View, CA, USA; Sterling, VA, USA; Seattle, WA, USA; Atlanta, GA, USA; Los Angeles, CA, USA; Amsterdam, The Netherlands

k.root-servers.net

193.0.14.129

London, UK; Amsterdam, The Netherlands

l.root-servers.net

198.32.64.12

Los Angeles, CA, USA

m.root-servers.net

202.12.27.33

Tokyo, Japan



Figure 242: Geographic Locations of Internet DNS Root Name Servers

 


On The Web: The current list of root name servers can be found in the file ftp://ftp.rs.internic.net/domain/named.root. You can also find the information in a more user-friendly format at http://www.root-servers.org.



Previous Topic/Section
DNS Zone Management, Contacts and Zone Transfers
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
12
3
Next Page
DNS Name Server Caching, Negative Caching and Data Persistence
Next Topic/Section

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