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Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols, Services and Applications (OSI Layers 5, 6 and 7)
      9  TCP/IP Key Applications and Application Protocols
           9  TCP/IP Application Layer Addressing: Uniform Resource Identifiers, Locators and Names (URIs, URLs and URNs)
                9  Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)

Previous Topic/Section
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
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123
4
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URL Schemes (Applications / Access Methods) and Scheme-Specific Syntaxes
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URL General Syntax
(Page 4 of 4)

"Unsafe" Characters and Special Encodings

URLs are normally expressed in the standard US ASCII character set, which is the default used by most TCP/IP application protocols. Certain characters in the set are called unsafe, because they have special meaning in different contexts, and including them in a URL would lead to ambiguity or problems in of how they should be interpreted. The “space” character is the classical “unsafe” character because spaces are normally used to separate URLs, so including one in a URL would break the URL into “pieces”. Other characters are “unsafe” because they have special significance in a URL, such as the colon (“:”).

The “safe” characters in a URL are alphanumerics (A to Z, a to z and 0 to 9) and the following special characters: the dollar sign (“$”), hyphen (“-”), underscore (“_”), period (“.”), plus sign (“+”), exclamation point (“!”), asterisk (“*”), apostrophe (“'”), left parenthesis (“(”), and right parenthesis (“)”). All other “unsafe” characters can be represented in a URL using an encoding scheme consisting of a percent sign (“%”) followed by the hexadecimal ASCII value of the character. The most common examples are given in Table 223.


Table 223: URL Special Character Encodings

Character

Encoding

Character

Encoding

Character

Encoding

<space>

%20

<

%3C

>

%3E

#

%23

%

%25

{

%7B

}

%7D

|

%7C

\

%5C

^

%5E

~

%7E

[

%5B

]

%5D

 

`%60

;

%3B

/

%2F

?

%3F

:

%3A

@

%40

=

%3D

%

%26


When these sequences are encountered, they are interpreted as the literal character they represent, without any “significance”. So, the URL “http://www.myfavesite.com/are%20you%20there%3F” points to a file called “are you there?” on “www.myfavesite.com”. The “%20” codes prevent the spaces from breaking up the URL, and the “3F” prevents the question mark in the file name from being interpreted as a special URL character.

Note: Since the percent sign is used for this encoding mechanism, it itself is “special”; any time it is seen the next values are interpreted as character encodings, so to embed a literal percent sign, it must be encoded as “%25”.


Again, these encodings are sometimes abused for nefarious purposes, unfortunately, such as using them for regular ASCII characters to obscure URLs.


Previous Topic/Section
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
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123
4
Next Page
URL Schemes (Applications / Access Methods) and Scheme-Specific Syntaxes
Next Topic/Section

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Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005

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