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Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols, Services and Applications (OSI Layers 5, 6 and 7)
      9  TCP/IP Key Applications and Application Protocols
           9  TCP/IP File and Message Transfer Applications and Protocols (FTP, TFTP, Electronic Mail, USENET, HTTP/WWW, Gopher)
                9  Usenet (Network News) and the TCP/IP Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
                     9  Usenet Overview, Concepts and General Operation

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Usenet Addressing: Newsgroups, Newsgroup Hierarchies and Types
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TCP/IP Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
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Usenet Message Format and Special Headers
(Page 3 of 3)

Additional Usenet Headers

Usenet messages may also contain additional headers, just as is the case with e-mail messages. Some of these headers are entirely “custom” and are included by individual users to provide extra information about an article. Others are used in many or even most current Usenet articles, and have become almost “de facto” standard headers through common use. Many of these custom headers are preceded by “X-”, indicating that they are “experimental” or “extra” headers.

Some of the more frequently encountered “additional” Usenet headers are shown in Table 265.

Table 265: Common Additional Usenet Headers

Header Name



Specifies the IP address or the DNS domain name of the host used to originally post the message. This is usually either the address of the client that the author used for posting the message, or the sender's local NNTP server.



The name and version number of the software used to post the message.


Provides additional information that can be used to trace the message.


An e-mail address to use to report abusive messages. This header is now included automatically by many Internet Service Providers.

Usenet MIME Messages

Since Usenet follows the RFC 822 standard, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) can be used to format Usenet messages. When this is done, you will see the usual MIME headers (such as MIME-Version, Content-Type and so forth) in the message.

Note that the use of MIME in Usenet messages is somewhat controversial. Some newsreaders are not MIME-compliant and make a mess when trying to display some of these messages, and many Usenet veterans object to the use of anything but plain text in Usenet messages. Despite this, MIME messages are becoming more common, for better or worse.


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Usenet Addressing: Newsgroups, Newsgroup Hierarchies and Types
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TCP/IP Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
Next Topic/Section

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Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005

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