Please Whitelist This Site?

I know everyone hates ads. But please understand that I am providing premium content for free that takes hundreds of hours of time to research and write. I don't want to go to a pay-only model like some sites, but when more and more people block ads, I end up working for free. And I have a family to support, just like you. :)

If you like The TCP/IP Guide, please consider the download version. It's priced very economically and you can read all of it in a convenient format without ads.

If you want to use this site for free, I'd be grateful if you could add the site to the whitelist for Adblock. To do so, just open the Adblock menu and select "Disable on tcpipguide.com". Or go to the Tools menu and select "Adblock Plus Preferences...". Then click "Add Filter..." at the bottom, and add this string: "@@||tcpipguide.com^$document". Then just click OK.

Thanks for your understanding!

Sincerely, Charles Kozierok
Author and Publisher, The TCP/IP Guide


NOTE: Using software to mass-download the site degrades the server and is prohibited.
If you want to read The TCP/IP Guide offline, please consider licensing it. Thank you.

The Book is Here... and Now On Sale!

Enjoy The TCP/IP Guide? Get the complete PDF!
The TCP/IP Guide

Custom Search







Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  TCP/IP Lower-Layer (Interface, Internet and Transport) Protocols (OSI Layers 2, 3 and 4)
      9  TCP/IP Internet Layer (OSI Network Layer) Protocols
           9  Internet Protocol (IP/IPv4, IPng/IPv6) and IP-Related Protocols (IP NAT, IPSec, Mobile IP)
                9  Internet Protocol Version 4 (IP, IPv4)
                     9  IP Addressing
                          9  IP "Classful" (Conventional) Addressing

Previous Topic/Section
IP Reserved, Loopback and Private Addresses
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
1
2
Next Page
Problems With "Classful" IP Addressing
Next Topic/Section

IP Multicast Addressing
(Page 2 of 2)

Well-Known Multicast Addresses

The first block of 256 addresses is used to define special, well-known multicast address blocks. These do not represent arbitrary groups of devices and cannot be assigned in that manner. Instead, they have special meaning that allows a source to send a message to a predefined group. Table 49 shows some of the “well-known” multicast addresses:


Table 49: Well-Known IP Multicast Addresses

Range Start Address

Description

224.0.0.0

Reserved; not used

224.0.0.1

All devices on the subnet

224.0.0.2

All routers on the subnet

224.0.0.3

Reserved

224.0.0.4

All routers using DVMRP

224.0.0.5

All routers using OSPF

224.0.0.6

Designated routers using OSPF

224.0.0.9

Designated routers using RIP-2

224.0.0.11

Mobile agents (for Mobile IP)

224.0.0.12

DHCP Server / Relay Agent


Note: There are some other predefined groups that also refer to routers using particular routing protocols; I didn't bother listing them all as the table would get quite large.


Delivery of IP multicast traffic is more complex than unicast traffic due to the existence of multiple recipients. Instead of the normal resolution method through the ARP protocol used for unicast datagrams, a special mapping is performed between the IP multicast group and a hardware multicast group.


Previous Topic/Section
IP Reserved, Loopback and Private Addresses
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
1
2
Next Page
Problems With "Classful" IP Addressing
Next Topic/Section

If you find The TCP/IP Guide useful, please consider making a small Paypal donation to help the site, using one of the buttons below. You can also donate a custom amount using the far right button (not less than $1 please, or PayPal gets most/all of your money!) In lieu of a larger donation, you may wish to consider purchasing a download license of The TCP/IP Guide. Thanks for your support!
Donate $2
Donate $5
Donate $10
Donate $20
Donate $30
Donate: $



Home - Table Of Contents - Contact Us

The TCP/IP Guide (http://www.TCPIPGuide.com)
Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005

Copyright 2001-2005 Charles M. Kozierok. All Rights Reserved.
Not responsible for any loss resulting from the use of this site.